Free «Emerging Technologies: Cyber Security» Essay Sample

Introduction

The growth of information technologies has caused rapid development and increased use of information networks in entrepreneurship and daily life. Still, it has also led to the growth of new threats. The anonymity of the global information network, simplicity of its use, and data transmission rate provide better conditions for both Internet users and cybercriminals, since everyone has easy access to it. However, the lure of fast enrichment caused a boom in cybercrime. Therefore, cyber security is the main deterrent on the way of cybercrime. Thus, new emerging cyber security technologies are a popular trend as far as they provide secure access to personal data. The purpose of this paper is to identify new cyber security technologies and to define the role of government in their development.

Part I. Emerging Cyber Security Technologies and Their Role in Cyber Security Improvement

In today’s rapidly developing world, emerging technologies are coming to the forefront of scientific development. The relatively fast growth of new techniques is incomparable with the last centuries when the progress was comparatively stagnant. The emerging technologies concern every stage of human existence. They are characterized by radical novelty; therefore, the technologies that emerged a few decades ago do not belong to this category. The emerging technologies are characterized by the cutting-edge studies, which can often be obscure for novices or even specialists in the field. Despite the failure to understand the real meaning of the emerging technologies, they are often considered to be a society-changing mechanism that can radically influence the economy (Rotolo & Hicks, 2015).

The emerging technologies are vitally important for cyber security development, because they provide solutions to the emerging cyber threats that appear out of the malicious application of information and communication technologies. Emerging cyber security technologies assist in preventing cybercrimes and examining security risks. With the growth of the Internet usage, different organizations have begun to rely more on the online data transfer. A vast range of operations is realized through the network. The fast development of the modern world requires drastic actions on the way to cyber security protection. Emerging cyber security technologies assist to ensure security in the network and protect the essential data.

The issue of cyber security has attracted mass attention, because it acquires more popularity due to its importance nowadays. The vulnerability of the cyber-sphere can be detrimental to the owners of virtual accounts. Therefore, cyber security tries to suggest new ways of protecting users’ data.

Cyber security includes a variety of means, strategies, and principles that are used to provide informational security, which is the safety of information and infrastructure in the digital environment. The significance of cyber security problems is hard to overestimate. Every day people face the need to use informational technologies, starting from social networks to personal information and bank accounts, which they put on the Internet. The term ‘cyber security’ became pervasive on the world’s stage; however, it is hard to say that the pervasiveness of this term correlates with the decisions which are made to provide better security for the online users. People are living in turbulent times; therefore, it is no wonder that information security is such an important issue. Cyber security development has become a priority nowadays. Various researches and investigations are dedicated to improving and introducing innovative means of protection. Emerging cyber security technologies assist in creating the cyber security framework, which includes functions envisioned as target results (Johnson, 2015): identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover. The emerging cyber security technologies attempt to organize these activities at the most critical level in order to improve the field of cyber security.

Currently, the emerging cyber security technologies improve cyber security by discovering new solutions to emerging cybercrimes, researching critical areas for technology application, developing innovative ways to share intellectual properties, driving security improvements, and ensuring the systems’ trustworthiness.

In general, different cyber security technologies are responsible for their purposes and target objectives. In order to understand them, some of them have to be analyzed in detail.

Part II. Emerging Cyber Security Technologies

In the course of cyber technologies analysis, three technologies are going to be discussed. They include searchable encryption, moving target defense, and tailored trustworthy spaces. These emerging cyber security technologies are completely different, and their application results in a number of differentiating results.

2.1. Searchable Encryption, Moving Target Defense, and Tailored Trustworthy Spaces and Their Features

Searchable Encryption.  One of the latest developments in the sphere of cyber security is searchable encryption (SE). Its relevance is defined by the data flow which can often be untraceable on the Internet. It is backed by the fact that all data in medical, banking or other spheres should be encrypted to provide better security for customers (Bösch et al., 2014). This technique is still on the stage of development; therefore, further tests are required to manage this system.

People often rely on cloud services and storages; however, they are not secure, because cyber criminals can access the information with the root rights (Bösch et al., 2014). Therefore, a distinctive type of encryption is required to protect the data. After the data are encrypted, a key is automatically generated. It provides additional security for the owner; however, the search within the owner’s information is suffering. In order to avoid problems with searching functionality, it is important to use a new functional method of searchable encryption (Bösch et al., 2014).

Moving Target Defense. Moving target defense is a way of cyberspace protection, which is based on the change of attacking locations (Evans et al., 2011).

The concept consists of a simple notion. When hacking a system, it is important for hackers to examine a target. The examination and exploration of the website or a server require time. Therefore, moving target defenses means that in case of a hacking attempt, the system of a computer will change in a short period of time, so that t would be impossible for hackers to break into the system. Moving target defense no longer creates protection for a static system. It operates on a completely new level. Until recently, it was supposed that adding complexity to systems will only hinder the normal usage of the Internet. However, this complexity more often appears to work in an unimpeded way. The main idea is that the system will implement changes only after an attacking attempt; it will not have any changes in the structure or semantic during its day-to-day work (Evans et al., 2011).

On the network level, it is also possible to change the location of the server with influential resources. MTD, however, tracks locations to save them for the future reorganization.

The main principles of the MTD include data division, fake targets, and cryptographic access (Robinson, 2012). The division of the data helps to spread information to different servers. In this way, it would be hard to obtain data because of its inconsistent presence on the web. Fake targets include different fake servers or data that take the attack upon themselves. In addition, cryptographic access is a higher notch in accessing information. The password is no longer static; it can be generated randomly to deceive attackers.

Tailored Trustworthy Spaces. Tailored Trustworthy Space is the environment that provides security for definite users’ content and applications. One of the main features of the TTS is that it evolves together with the context. TTS is becoming more popular, because different content requires different levels of confidentiality. Therefore, it is important to create protected environment for different kinds of applications.

The goal of this technology is to produce trustworthy spaces on request (Hsu & Marinucci, 2012) TTS will distinguish between two types of applications: trusted and untrusted. The main idea is that the functionality of trusted applications will not change as far as it can lead to dissatisfaction with security. However, trusted applications will receive special treatment created according to their needs (Hsu & Marinucci, 2012). It is made, because Facebook accounts and the information on nuclear experiments require different levels of protection. Every case is unitary and should be treated differently.

2.2. Usage of Searchable Encryption, Moving Target Defense, and Tailored Trustworthy Spaces Within the Organization

Application of Searchable Encryption. Searchable encryption allows a user to search a document for required information. An advantage is that it does not generate information about the plaintext. The main feature of the searchable encryption is easy data search, and it is a quite effective tool for the organization. It could assist employees to search the data quickly and efficiently. The mechanism of the searchable encryption application is not difficult and it could be easily implemented within the organization.

The information of a client is stored on a trustable server. If a client wants to access the information, a “trapdoor” should be created. Then, with the indexation search, a client can enter a query to see if a certain keyword is present in the index (Bösch et al., 2014). Searchable encryption connects clients with the server in a one-way form. A client creates the “trapdoor” that is needed for the server, which contains his of her information. The second step is the search inside the server.

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By doing this, the search will omit the plaintext and provide only trusted information. The indexation can be trusted only with the “trapdoor”, which can be created with a secret key. This is a two-layer search. Without a “trapdoor”, no encrypted data will be revealed to the users. Thus, the encryption can be spread on both index and data provided by the user (Curtmola et al., 2006). Providing trusted information quickly is necessary for the organization as it will simplify the searching process and make the target result more efficient.

Moreover, it must be admitted that searchable encryption will assist the organization to outsource clients’ or organizations’ data to the other server. It will help to execute a safe selective search. As far as cloud-service technology will be only developing in the future, its role will increase year after year.

It might be added that installation of this technology will assist companies in the future. Therefore, it is important to provide secure information access for the cloud services. Full elimination of the cyber threat is doubtful. However, on this stage, searchable encryption can provide an important insight into the security of online data. The servers themselves can search the data in the cloud storages. With searchable encryptions, servers will not have an access to the encrypted data.

Application of Moving Target Defense. The usage of the moving target defense technology is closely connected to the organization’s software code structure. It can operate automatically on a low-level when no human work is required. When a malicious action is detected, the code structure starts operating in a different way without changing the structure itself. This process can be done automatically as far as often no specifications of the structural code are needed. The drawback is that this way of structure changing is not effective against high-level attacks.

On another level, the change of the program semantics requires better understanding of the program structure (Evans et al., 2011). Since the system works unpredictably, it is hard to get static information on it. For instance, if a company changes its IP address constantly, the information someone wants to receive will be inconsistent as well. However, in order to operate on a high level, MTD needs human resources to manage its processes.

Its main advantage for the organization is that the MTD also includes bigger expenses for the hackers. Besides, more work should be put into the attacking of the system. MTD changes the configuration of the system in unpredictable and untraceable ways. As a result, the system becomes more resistant to the exploits of cyber attackers. It makes it quite attractive, because it increases the level of cyber security within the organization.

The main component of the moving target defenses is random adaptations (Zhuang et al., 2013). MTD works on the Adaptation Engine, which allows changing the configuration of the network. Adaptation Engine revises the configuration of the network and seeks all easy-to-access spots in the network. Moreover, in order to achhieve higher efficacy, it is important to minimize the number of adaptations while keeping the effect of the change. The performance of the system should not be hindered by the adaptations. Adaptation Engine is based on decision-making (Zhuang et al., 2013). Its functionality also includes changing of the protocol, IP addresses, and others. AE can also model a way of the future attack, thus preventing it and eliminating the vulnerabilities.

Application of Tailored Trustworthy Spaces. The aim of the TTS is to achieve higher functionality for trusted application while remaining the same functionality for the untrusted ones. It can be achieved through secure execution compartment (Hsu & Marinucci, 2012). Every application then receives unique security needs, which correspond to the requirement of the application. After the implementation of this method, the data will run in its own compartment. This allows to eliminate the threat of invasion of malicious attackers. The possibility to terminate secure compartments also plays a great role, because it does not allow the information to enter public space. This technology will also be quite useful for the organization as it could assist to obtain unique security needs and reduce the possibility of cyber-attack.

2.3. Real World Examples of Emerging Cyber Technologies Usage

The field of cyber security has recently showed its significance as it has introduced a number of groundbreaking inventions which produced great effect on the control of cyber space. There is a wide range of fields, where the emerging cyber security technologies are applied. They include e-commerce, e-health, company’s security systems, etc., the main objective of which is to prevent cyber-attacks.

Modern companies apply the emerging cyber security technologies in order to create strong defense mechanisms. They insure defense against the automated attacks and human intruders. For example, the system “Sticky Honeypots” monitors the unitized IP space. It helps to solve problematic issues, because it applies the incident analysis tools. This system quickly delivers the analyzed data and provides fast response towards the incident.

In order to mention previously discussed technologies, the significance of searchable encryption should be admitted. This technology is used for e-health, which is a fast- growing sphere, where the patients search for fast contact with their doctors. This technology is applied by modern hospitals. Their databases use it in order to make the process of information search quick and effective. This technology ensures control of the patient’s data, surgeries, medications, and even finances (Thampi et al., 2012).

Another technology to be discussed is the Moving Target Defense. It could be successfully applied in practice for ensuring the national security objectives. The Cyber Security Division currently develops this system and aims at using it for governmental purposes in the future. The high level of the MTD requires further automation as it too resource-intensive. The final step would be to upgrade the MTD technology to the upper lever. It will eliminate glitches in the system and provide better protection from the malicious attacks. Practical application of this technology will reduce the incidence of attacks on the state institutions.

Part 3. The Role of Government in Nurturing and Supporting the Emerging Cyber Security Technologies

Today, the government plays a significant role in supporting and nurturing the emerging cyber security technologies. After the terrorist attack, which happened on 9/11, the government started to perceive security more seriously and even made certain steps to improve the security of information. Thomas Johnson (2015) indicates that the loss of the great amount of intellectual property attributed to Chinese and Russians has also alerted it. American Presidents Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Barrack Obama constantly remind people about the necessity to increase cyber security.

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The current American President has issued the Executive Order in 2014 in order to improve the nation’s infrastructure cyber security. The economic and national well-being of the country partially depends on the reliable functioning of the infrastructure and cyber-attacks may provide detrimental effect on it.

“Cyber-attack” is no longer a fancy term without recognition. The federal government is preparing to fight cyber-attacks, which had cost billions of dollars. In order to support the development of cyber security, the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) has been established by the government of the U.S. The change has also happened on the personnel level. New cyber security coordinators acquired their posts to provide innovations and support researches of the digital world. The major goals of the CNCI include bringing the vigilance of networks to a higher level; defense against the oncoming threats; and the development of a strong cyber security environment.

Another initiative is the approach called EINSTEIN 3 (CNCI PDF). This technique is aimed at defining malevolent threats, analyzing them, and providing a comprehensive response. It will also search for different vulnerabilities in the systems to provide security before the attack is done.

This initiative also provides trusted Internet connections, which are needed to boost cooperation among different enterprises.

The protection of privacy rights is the main objective of the CNCI, and the goals of the CNCI can be achieved only through cooperation and innovations on every level.

3.1. Benefits and Drawbacks in Governmental Efforts to Support the Emerging Cyber Security Technologies

The main benefit of governmental support of the emerging cyber security technologies is that it can assist to develop larger and more robust cyber security research community able to generate innovative technological ideas. Governmental support could advance the nation’s cyber security efforts. Moreover, it would provide researchers with more opportunities due to bigger financial and technological capabilities. Currently, there are not enough cyber security experts within the federal government, who can secure the national cyberspace (Libicki, Senty, & Pollack, 2014). Governmental support could result in efficient cyber security trainings and personnel development. Governmental support will definitely have the advantageous effect as it will assist in acquiring more professionals to secure cyberspace and continue further revolutionary breakthroughs.

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