1. Atavism means the recurrence to a previous style, behavior or method after some period of time.
Anomie is a social condition that involves a lack of order and cohesion, especially regarding values and norms.
Relative deprivation is a theory of social movements and change, according to which, people participate in social change in order to get something (for instance, wealth, status or opportunities) that other people have.
The zone of transition is the city zone between the outer area of middle-class and working-class (inhabited mainly by socially deviant groups and the poorest people) and business district located in the city center. The term “zone of transition” is synonymous and refers to the term ‘inner city’.
Moral panic term is used to describe the phenomenon of social media hysteria about something (person or group of people, the trend of social development or an ideology) that threatens the society’s moral values and security, and the public reaction to in a panicky manner.
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Hegemonic masculinity is a concept in gender studies that describes the subordinate social position of women and the dominant social position of men. Generally, hegemonic masculinity explains the issue of why and how males maintain dominant social roles over females or any other gender identities, which are considered as “feminine”.
2. The classical school does not consider the criminal behavior and crime as a sin. Thus, it concentrates on a reason-based approach with checks on authority, not the possibility to punish criminal behavior as an act on a spiritual level. On the contrary, the positivist approach is based on statistics that assess societal factors to find out which of them are more likely to become the reason of crime. Here lies the fundamental difference between these two schools of philosophy. The positivist theory is scientific, based on the study of human affairs and social data, while the classical approach is more philosophical in its recognition of the cause and punishment of criminal behavior.
3. In The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845), Engels considered the incidence of crime among the working class, ‘the most exploited sections’, as the result of all issues that all the poorest people face. According to him, assault and theft are a response to exploitation and oppression. However, occasionally, it is directed to the source of this oppression. Often the victim is as powerless and poor like the offender. Crime was considered as a feature of the “lumpenproletariat’” but not the working class. Thus, it is a marginal issue. All discussions about crimes of working class Engels considered as moral panic fueled with the government and mass media, and all discourses about crime he considered as a result of the bourgeois ideological categories.
4. Al Cohen states that the main characteristic of delinquent or criminal subcultures is that they denote any systems of interests, values and norms that support delinquent or criminal behavior. Many conducts specified in law as delinquent or criminal are associated with the corresponding groups. According to Cohen, interests, values and norms of these subcultures may support a limited set of criminal acts or particular criminal acts (for example, a subculture of hustlers and a subculture of pickpockets). Generally, professional criminals avoid other types of criminal involvement that might bring them to the authorities’ attention. They organize themselves for the efficient and safe performance of the crimes in which they specialize and take pride of their craft.
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5. According to Kimberle Crenshaw, intersectionality is the concept of an interaction between different types of discrimination. There have been African American women in every political moment, every intellectual sphere and in every generation. They have been talking and thinking about feminism through a lens of race, and they have articulated the need to talk and think about race through a lens of gender. Thus, there is continuity in this issue.